In science it is often said that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. Recent measurements of the mass of an elementary particle known as the W boson provide a useful case study on why. last yearFermilab physicists caused a stir when they did it reported measuring the mass of the W boson which deviated significantly from the theoretical expectations of the so-called The standard model of particle physics—A tantalizing glimpse into new physics. Others advised caution, as the measurement contradicted previous ones.
This warning seems justified. ATLAS collaboration at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). announce New and improved analysis of their W boson data and found that the measured value for its mass is still consistent with the Standard Model. Warning: This is a preliminary result. But it makes it less likely that Fermilab’s 2022 measurement will be correct.
“The measurement of W mass is among the most challenging and accurate measurements made at hadron colliders,” said Atlas spokesperson Andreas Hooker. “It requires very careful calibration of the energies and moments of the measured particles, careful evaluation and excellent control of uncertainty models. This updated result from ATLAS provides a rigorous test, and confirms the consistency of our theoretical understanding of electroweak interactions.”
as we are I mentioned earlierThe Standard Model describes the building blocks of the universe and how matter has evolved. These masses can be divided into two basic groups: fermions and bosons. Fermions make up all of the matter in the universe, including leptons and quarks. Leptons are particles that do not participate in holding the atomic nucleus together, like electrons and neutrinos. Their mission is to help matter change through nuclear decay into other particles and chemical elements, using the weak nuclear force. Quarks make up the atomic nucleus.
Bosons are the bonds that hold other particles together. Bosons move from one particle to another, and this gives rise to forces. There are four measurement bosons associated with the force. Gluon is related to the strong nuclear force: it “glues” the nucleus of an atom together. A photon carries the electromagnetic force that gives rise to light. The W and Z bosons carry the weak nuclear force and lead to different types of nuclear decay. Then there is the Higgs boson, which is a manifestation of the Higgs field. The Higgs field is an invisible entity that pervades the universe. Interactions between the Higgs field and particles help provide particles with mass, with particles that interact more strongly and have greater masses.