The first possible evidence for massive stars in the origin of globular clusters


Massive stars at the origin of globular clusters

Forecasts of pollution from the winds of rotating massive stars. Left: mass accretion in the winds of massive stars selected from Limongi & Chieffi (2018) with metallicity [Fe/H] = -1 and an initial rotation speed of 300 km per second-1 (cluster in M in the upper left) as a function of time. Top right: the total mass ejected into the stellar wind of a starburst with a total mass of 108M With Salpeter IMF at different times after the burst (shown in left panels by dotted vertical lines) vs. O/H. Middle right: corresponding evolution of N/O when the ejection is diluted in the surrounding gas of the same mass; Observational data are the same as in Figure 1. Bottom right: Same as in middle panel, but for C/O. Credit: Astronomy and astrophysics (2023). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202346410

Globular clusters are the largest and oldest star clusters in the universe. It can contain up to a million stars. Born at the same time, the chemical composition of these stars shows anomalies not found in any other group of stars. Explaining this peculiarity is one of astronomy’s greatest challenges.

After I imagined it massive stars Could it have been originally, a team from the Universities of Geneva and Barcelona and the Astrophysical Institute in Paris (CNRS and Sorbonne University) believe they have discovered the first chemical trace attesting to their presence in globular protoclumps, which were born about 440 million years after the Big Bang. These results, obtained thanks to observations by the James Webb Space Telescope, have been published in the journal Astronomy and astrophysics.

Globular clusters are very dense collections of stars distributed in a sphere, with a radius ranging from ten to one hundred light years. They can contain up to a million stars and are found in all kinds of galaxies. Our country is home to about 180 of them. One of their greatest mysteries is their star formation: why is it so diverse? For example, the ratio of oxygen, nitrogen, sodium, and aluminum varies from star to star. However, they were all born at the same time, within the same gas cloud. Astrophysicists talk about “abundance anomalies”.

Short-lived monsters

A team from the Universities of Geneva (UNIGE) and Barcelona and the Astrophysical Institute of Paris (CNRS and Sorbonne) have made new progress in explaining this phenomenon. In 2018, it developed a theoretical model according to which the formation of massive stars would “pollute” the original gas cloud during the formation of these clusters, enriching their stars with chemical elements in a heterogeneous way.

explains Corinne Charbonnell, Professor in the Department of Astronomy, UNIGE College of Science, and first author of the study.

These celestial monsters have 5,000 to 10,000 times more mass, and five times hotter at their center (75 million degrees Celsius) than the Sun. But proving its existence is complicated. Mark Gillis, ICREA Professor at the International Institute for the Restoration of Democracy (ICREA), explains, “Global clusters are between 10 and 13 billion years old, while stars have a maximum age of 2 million years. They therefore disappeared much earlier than the currently observable clusters. There are only indirect effects left.” University of Barcelona and co-author of the study.

revealed by the light

Thanks to the very strong infrared vision of the James Webb Telescope, the co-authors were able to support their hypothesis. The satellite captured the light emitted from one of the smallest, most distant galaxies known to date in our universe. GN-z11 is located about 13.3 billion light-years away, and is a few tens of millions of years old. In astronomy, analysis of the optical spectrum of cosmic bodies is a key element in determining their properties. Here, the light from this galaxy provided two valuable pieces of information.

“It has been shown to have very high levels of nitrogen and very high densities of stars,” says Daniel Shearer, assistant professor in the Department of Astronomy in the UNIGE College of Science, and co-author of the study.

This indicates that several globular clusters are forming in this galaxy and that it still harbors an active massive star. “The strong presence of nitrogen can only be explained by the combustion of hydrogen at extremely high temperatures, which only the cores of massive stars can reach, as shown by the models of Laura Ramirez-Galeano, a master’s student on our team,” explains Corinne Charbonnel. .

These new findings reinforce the international team model. The only one currently able to explain the anomalies of abundance in globular clusters. The next step for the scientists will be to test the validity of this model against another spherical clusters They form in distant galaxies, using James Webb data.

more information:
C. Charbonnel et al., N-Improvement in GN-z11: First Evidence for Nuclear Composition of Massive Stars in Proto-Global Cluster-like Conditions at High Redshift?, Astronomy and astrophysics (2023). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202346410

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