Tracking carbon dioxide emissions from space could help support climate agreements

Tracking carbon dioxide emissions from space could help support climate agreements

NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite can make precise measurements of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

The central goal of Paris agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, but preferably 1.5°C.

This challenging task will require policies and tools to enable every sector of society to reduce significantly Greenhouse gases (greenhouse gases) emissions Finally reaching net zero.

Enacting the most effective and efficient strategies to reduce emissions begins with knowing the details of where, when and how much of these strategies Greenhouse gases We make emissions, followed by implementing emissions reduction policies and tracking our progress.

Is it possible to trace carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions f reduce emissions from space? New search from my group indicates that.

Why co2 issues

co2 Do you Primary greenhouse gases driving climate change. burning Fossil fuels for Electricity generationHeating buildings, industry and transportation have all led to a rise in carbon dioxide2 in our atmosphere exceeds normal levels.

Currently, CO2 Emissions reports are mainly prepared by calculating the mass of fossil fuels purchased and used, and then calculating projected emissions—not actual carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.2 measurements. Exact details about exactly when and where emissions occurred are often not available, but more transparent CO2 monitoring is available.2 Emissions can help track the effectiveness of policies to reduce emissions.

today GPS satellites help us get around, Meteorological satellites Track weather systems and communications satellites and relay TV, Internet, and phone signals. It’s time to use satellites to help tackle the greatest challenge humanity has ever faced – climate change.

Carbon dioxide satellites2

global network of ground company2 Measurements began in 1957 It now consists of More than a hundred stations around the world. Accurate and accurate measurements from these stations revealed a lot of changes in carbon dioxide in the global atmosphere2 and the Earth’s overall carbon cycle, but we can’t put these stations everywhere on Earth.

Satellites can monitor the entire planet. Those that measure carbon dioxide2 In the lower atmosphere near Earth’s surface (where CO2 emissions and carbon dioxide2 Plants sucking) first happened in 2002. Since then, they’ve gotten better and better at doing this, but there have been setbacks along the way.

Nearly a decade of effort went into development by NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Satellites To make accurate measurements of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere2 across the floor.

In 2009, OCO was lost due to a launch problem. After persistent advocacy for the rebuilding of this critical climate mission, NASA has secured new funding for the launch OCO-2 satellite in 2014 and OCO-3 to the International Space Station in 2019.

The OCO missions are designed to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide in vegetation2 Absorption, also known as Earth’s carbon sink. But what about fossil fuel carbon dioxide2 emissions?

A new method for checking CO2 emissions

In 2017, she led a research team that published a dossier The first study shows that we can quantify carbon dioxide2 Emissions at individual power plant scale using OCO-2 observations.

Because OCO-2 was not designed for this purpose, its coverage and irregular visits were insufficient for global operational CO22 Emissions control, but we can still quantify emissions in Mark instances when the satellite passes close enough and gets a good cloud-free view.

OCO-3 is very similar to OCO-2, but it has an additional pointing mirror that enables it to map CO better2 about goals of interest such as Belchatów Power Station In Poland, Europe’s largest fossil-fuel-burning and carbon-dioxide power plant2 source.

With ten clear views of CO2 Emission plumes from Bełchatów imaged by OCO-2 and OCO-3 from 2017-2022 analyzed in New studyWe were able to determine the emissions in those days.

European Power Plants Report Hourly power generation But only annual carbon dioxide2 emissions. Power generation fluctuates with electricity demand, generation unit shutdown (for maintenance or shutdown), and carbon dioxide2 Emissions are expected to show proportional fluctuations.

We confirmed this using OCO-2 and OCO-3 in Our last paperwhich showed that satellite observations can track changes in carbon dioxide at the facility level2 emissions. This means that satellites can be used to verify (or disprove) reported carbon monoxide2 reduce emissions from Climate change Mitigation – such as mandatory efficiency improvements, carbon capture and storage technology, etc.

Emissions control of the Paris Agreement

Our approach could be applied to more power plants or modified for CO22 emissions from Cities or countries with OCO-2 and OCO-3. We can also try to combine satellite observations with carbon monoxide2 Observation from the ground or aircraft.

While we are already working on this, progress will only be incremental until the European Commission funding is released Copernicus Anthropogenic Co2 Monitoring mission or “CO2M”. CO2M consists of two satellites, which are intended to launch in the late 2025 year.

These satellites will provide about 50 times the coverage of OCO-2 and OCO-3 combined and will form A space component of the European carbon dioxide system2 Emissions Monitoring, Verification and Support (MVS).

Carbon dioxide would be a huge advance, but just like successful global climate action, it will require contributions from many countries. A robust, long-term, operational global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions needs A constellation of satellites contributed by multiple countries as part of an integrated global monitoring system.

Hopefully, with new, more detailed, and transparent tracking of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions to assess and guide us toward the most effective policies, society can achieve the emissions reductions needed to get there. Net zero in time.

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